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    [М]осковская область

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    The climate is temperate continental , Moscow region , with distinct seasons . Cold period (the average daily air temperature is below 0 ° C), starting in early November and ending in the first ten days of April, lasts 130-145 days. Of these, 110-112 days ( 23-26 November) are resistant to frost period , including up to 40 days the temperature drops below -15 ° C. The coldest month - January (average temperature of -10 ° C in the west to -11,5 ° C in the east) . Short duration (2-7 days ) winter warming , mainly in December-February , under the influence of the Atlantic or the Mediterranean cyclones lead to thaw. During the cold period is observed on average 20-30 days with a snowstorm . At an early winter snow cover may appear at the end of September - beginning of October , when the late winter - at the end of November - beginning of December and lasts almost until the middle of April. Snow depth ranges from 30 to 45 cm, which is sufficiently protects crops and perennial plants from freezing . During the winter the soil freezes from 65 cm to 75 cm west to the east, north and south of the region , in the abnormally cold winters with little snow - up to 150 cm
    The warm period (the average daily temperature is above 0 ° C), starting in early April and ending in early November , lasts 205-215 days. The warmest month - July (average temperature of 16,5 ° C in the north- west to 18,5 ° C in the south- east). The absolute maximum temperature of - 39 ° C recorded in Kashira and Zaraysk .
    As a result of active business , fleet growth and a high degree of concentration of industrial and agricultural projects in the Moscow region the lower layers of the atmosphere are subject to strong anthropogenic pollution of numerous harmful chemicals. Especially heavy air pollution occurs in windless conditions anticyclonic weather in the industrial centers of Moscow region, among which are Voskresensk, Noginsk, Orekhovo- Sergiev Posad and Wedge . In the Moscow region more than 300 rivers (length over 10 km), wholly owned by River basin . Volga River, which flows in a small area the Upper Volga Valley. In the Moscow region there are three major rivers : the Oka , Moscow and Kliazma . All of the river - flat type , characterized by a steady flow , wide river valleys developed , having understand. The main source of supply ( 60%) - melt water , in connection with which there is a high (up to 13 m on the Oka ) spring tide , which often extends to 1.5 months , and low summer low water and separate rain floods . 140-150 days a year (mid- November to mid- April), icebound river .
    The largest river - Oka (length 1,500 km , maximum width of 200 m , depth up to 10 m) with its tributaries Protva , Nara , Lopasnya , Cna , sturgeon , etc. The total basin area of ​​245 km2 . Average annual water consumption of less than 1000 m3 / s. Below the confluence of the Moskva River for 100 miles Oka zashlyuzovana ( Beloomutsky hydro , etc.).
    Moskva River (length 473 km, maximum width of more than 200 m , the depth of 6 m), emerging from the " Moskvoretskaya puddles " around Mozhdysk , enters the 320 km from the mouth of hell in Moscow , where it connects with the Moscow Canal , flows into the Oka River in g . Kolomna. Moscow and its tributaries of Aboriginal , Ruza, Istra, Yauza Pakhra made ​​design , Severka etc. - water "axis" suburbs. The average annual water flow in the lower reaches of 109 m3 / s . In a valley about 160 lakes.
    River Kliazma (length 686 km, maximum width of 95 m , depth up to 5 m) with its tributaries Vorya , Sherna and Paul proceeds in part through the eastern part of the Moscow region and beyond its borders at the confluence of river. Kirzhach , a distance of 227 km from the source . Within Meshchora Kliazma has a wide (1 km ) floodplain , where there are about 150 oxbow lakes. The average annual flow rate of about 70 m3 / s. Stoke Klyaz'ma regulated Pirogov dam , etc.
    In the Moscow region, there are 350 lakes (depth of 5-10 m .) The largest - Senezh (area 15.4 km2) , Holy ( 12.6 km2) , Trostenskoe (7.3 km2). The deepest lake - Deep (up to 32 m), Borisoglebskoe (30 m) , White (30 m) .
    In the Moscow region 75 reservoirs with capacity of 1 million m3 , the creation of which began in 1930 . Most of the reservoirs ( area of ​​about 2 km2) has Fishery . The large size of the reservoir differ Moskvoretsky ( Istra , Mozhayskoe, Ruza , Ozerninskoe ) and Volga ( Ivankovskoe, Pestovskoye , Pyalovskoe , Klyazminskoye ) sources to ensure the needs of Moscow and the Moscow region in drinking water.
    Throughout dominated sod- podzolic soils varying degrees podzolized , and only in the extreme south of the region there are gray forest soils , and ashed and leached chernozem . The structure of the soil greatly influenced by topography, dissection and drainage area. On the slopes of the Smolensk- Moscow Upland and Klin- Dmitrov Ridge widely

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