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    "Гроза" Островский Александр Николаевич

    Alexander Ostrovsky [ 31.3 ( 12.4) .1823 - 2 (14) .6.1886 ] - Russian playwright . Born in the family of an official , a lawyer and his mother - a native of the lower clergy . Childhood and early adolescence spent now serving - a special corner of Moscow , with its well-established merchant- middle-class way of life . Educated at the 1st Moscow High School ( 1835-1840 ) and at the Faculty of Moscow State University ( 1840-1843 ; did not finish) . Service in the Moscow courts (1843-1851) has given much to Ostrovsky as a writer . The first literary works in prose Ostrovsky marked influence of the natural school ("Notes Zamoskvoretskii resident " , 1847) . In the same year in the " Moscow City leaflet " published his first dramatic work "The picture of family happiness " ( in later publications - "Family picture " ) . Ostrovsky has brought literary fame was published in 1850 comedy "His people - are numbered ! " (the original name - " of bankruptcy " ) . Even before the publication it became popular ( in the reading of the author and P. Sadowski ) , caused approving responses Nikolai Gogol , Ivan Goncharov , T. H. Granovsky , etc. The comedy was banned from reporting on the scene ( first staged in 1861 ) , and the author , on the personal order of Nicholas I, placed under police surveillance.
    In his literary debut Ostrovsky stuck direction, which he defined as accusatory , " moral and social " . Gen. merchants with its primitive and rough domination of fraud was presented to them satirically . Careful design of the characters , the accuracy of social patterns , humor, colorful language - the first conquest of realism young Ostrovsky. In the comedy " Poor Bride " ( 1851), the playwright tried to create a socio- psychological play of bureaucratic life. Early Ostrovsky's plays were published , usually in the conservative magazine " Muscovite ," in which Ostrovsky especially cooperated and as an editor, and as a critic in the years 1850-1851 , while he was a member of the so-called . " the young editor" magazine , with its members , he was a close personal friendship connected . Partly under the influence of this group and its chief ideologue AA Grigoriev in the plays of Ostrovsky's " Not in my sled does not sit " (1852), "Poverty Is No Crime " (1853), " Not so live as you want " (1854 ) sounded idealization of Russian motives patriarchal customs of antiquity. These sentiments are muted critical pathos Ostrovsky. But at the same time in the plays in this series have been sought positive aspects of people's lives have been creating original characters as the favorite Butts . She grew up in these plays and dramatic technique Ostrovsky. Starting with the comedy " Not in my sled does not sit down ," set in the 1853 Moscow theater troupe to stage area of the Bolshoi Theatre , Ostrovsky's play quickly gaining repertoire for more than three decades of almost every season in St. Petersburg and Moscow's Maly Alexandrine theater marked his staging a new play.
    Since 1856 Ostrovsky - a permanent employee of the journal "Contemporary" - moving closer to the leaders of the democratic Russian journalism. In the years before the social upheaval of the peasant reform of 1861 the newly enhanced social criticism in his work , the drama becomes more acute conflicts. In the comedy " In a strange feast hangover " ( 1855) not only created an impressive image of Titus Titych Bruskova - the embodiment of the dark and brutal force domestic despotism , but was first uttered the word " tyrant " was reserved for the whole gallery of types Ostrovsky. Comedy " Profitable " (1856 ) castigated bribery of officials, which has become the norm , the play "The Pupil " (1858 ) was a living protest against the oppression of the individual . Achievement of this period of creativity Ostrovsky crowned drama " Thunderstorm" (1859 ) , inspired in particular impressions of the author's trips to the cities of the Upper Volga in 1856 and 1857 .
    In "Storm " Ostrovsky - satirist and " BYTOVIK " - draws a musty atmosphere of a provincial town with her ​​rudeness , hypocrisy, and the power of the rich and " older ." Ostrovsky - dramatic poet - makes it feel attractiveness of another world : the world of nature, the Volga, beauty and tragic poetry , charm which is fanned by way of Catherine. Storm - is a symbol of spiritual confusion heroine , fighting feelings of moral elevation in the tragic love, and at the same time - the embodiment of the burden of

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