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    Kafka was born on July 3, 1883 into a Jewish family who lived in the ghetto of Prague ( Bohemia , at the time - part of the Austro -Hungarian Empire ) . His father - Hermann Kafka (1852-1931) , came from cheshskoyazychnoy Jewish community , since 1882 was the dry goods merchant . The writer's mother - Julia Kafka ( Levy ) ( 1856-1934 ) - German preferred . Sam Kafka wrote in German, although the Czech knew perfectly well . He owned a few and French , and among the four people that writer , " without claiming match them in strength and mind " feel "their blood brothers " , was a French novelist Gustave Flaubert . The other three : Grillparzer , Fyodor Dostoevsky and Heinrich von Kleist .
    Kafka had two younger brothers and three younger sisters . The two brothers , and not reaching the age of two died before Kafka was 6 years old . Sisters named Ellie, Valli and Ottley . In the period from 1889 to 1893 . Kafka attended primary school (Deutsche Knabenschule), and then high school , where he graduated in 1901, an examination for matriculation . After finishing the Prague Charles University , received a doctorate in law (head of Kafka's work on his thesis was Professor Alfred Weber ) , and then entered the service of an officer in the insurance industry , Franz Kafkagde and worked at the modest positions until early - sick - he retired in 1922 . work for the writer was a secondary occupation . At first the plan was always literature, " justifies all of his existence ." In 1917, following pulmonary hemorrhage began a long tuberculosis, from which the writer died June 3, 1924 in a sanatorium near Vienna.
    Asceticism , self-doubt , self-condemnation and a painful perception of the world - all these qualities zadokumentirovanny good writer in his letters and diaries , and especially in his "Letter to his father " - a valuable introspection in the relationship between father and son, and to the children's experience . Chronic diseases ( psychosomatic whether of nature - it's a moot point ), plagued him apart from tuberculosis, he was suffering from migraines , insomnia , constipation , boils , and other diseases. He was trying to counteract all this naturopathic methods, such as a vegetarian diet , regular exercises and eating large quantities of unpasteurized cow's milk (the latter perhaps was the cause of tuberculosis ) . As a schoolboy , he took an active part in the organization of literary and public meetings , made ​​efforts to the organization and promotion of the Yiddish theater performances , despite concerns even from his closest friends such as Max Brod, who usually supported him in everything else, and in spite of his own fear of being perceived as repulsive physically and mentally. The surrounding Kafka gave the impression of his boyish , neat , strict appearance, calm and unruffled behavior , as well as his mind and an unusual sense of humor.
    Kafka's relationship with his domineering father is an important part of his work , poured as a failure of the writer as a family man . In the period between 1912 and Franz Kafka1917 m over the years , he cared for the girl Felice Bauer in Berlin , which was engaged twice and twice canceled the engagement. When dealing with it mainly through letters , Kafka created her image, which does not correspond to reality. And in fact, they were very different people, as is clear from their correspondence . (Second bride Kafka was Julia Vohrytsek , but again soon engagement was broken off .) In the early 1920s, he had a love affair with a married Czech journalist , writer and translator of his works - Milena Jesenská . In 1923, Kafka, along with nineteen Dora Dimant , a few months he moved to Berlin , hoping to break away from the influence of family and concentrate on writing , and then he returned to Prague . Tuberculosis at the time was getting worse , and June 3, 1924 Kafka died in a sanatorium near Vienna , probably from exhaustion. ( Sore throat would not allow him to eat , and in those days, intravenous therapy was not developed to feed it by artificial means ) . The body was moved to Prague , where it was buried 11 June 1924 in the New Jewish Cemetery .
    During the life of Kafka published only a few short stories , constituting a very small fraction of his work , and his work attracted little attention , as long as the post mortem had not been issued for his novels . Before his death, he asked his friend and literary executor - Max Brod - burn , without exception, all of them written (except, perhaps , some copies of works that are holders could leave himself, but not to republish them). His lover Dora Dimant really destroyed the manuscripts that she had (though not all) , but Max Brod did not obey the will of the deceased and published most of his works, which soon began to attract attention . All of his published work , other than a few letters to Milena cheshskoyazychnyh Jesenská , was written in German .

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